When husband is not able to assist in artificial
insemination, sperm donors are needed. The potential donor has to undergo
comprehensive screening tests to rule out any diseases and physical evaluation
along with genetic analysis. Read on to know the criteria for becoming a sperm
A certain fertility clinic has interestingly mentioned a
heap of qualities that should mark a sperm donor. He is supposed to be
“intelligent, creative, charismatic, one who embodies passion and enthusiasm in
every area of his life.” These are all qualities that are required in a sperm
donor apart from the usual physical characteristics. It has been found that
sperm donors come from all walks of life and they can well have a wide array of
personality, value and skill.
There are a lot of men who file applications to become a
sperm donor. Amongst them usually just 5% clear the criteria.
Disqualification of Sperm Donor
Given below are a few conditions that immediately cause a
disqualification of a potential donor.
Diseases - Clinics are very particular that the person who wants to become
donor is free from certain diseases. Even if anyone in the family of the
potential donor is known to have suffered from cystic
fibrosis or sickle cell anemia, the person is disqualified.
Homosexuality - Men
who lead a homosexual life or who engage in sex
with other men cannot become a sperm donor.
Drug Addiction - If
the man is found to be an intravenous drug user, he is immediately
HIV Infection - If
the person is found to have visited areas that have a good number of HIV cases,
or have engaged in sex with women or men who are residents of those areas, are
not eligible to become a sperm donor.
Before the donor obtains clearance, they need to go through
a meticulous screening procedure. They need to fill in a lot of questionnaires,
undertake a number of blood screenings and specimen screenings along with a
comprehensive physical evaluation and a precise genetic analysis.
Procedure for Sperm
The screening process can be categorised into:
Check - A detailed interview about the sexual behavior of the person is
taken. This includes a check on the family background and the clinic would like
to have satisfactory reasons on why the man is interested in sperm donation.
He is expected to clearly answer queries related to his
family history. In certain cases, the clinics might ask questions related to
three generations preceding him. The information gathered is then evaluated.
Semen Analysis - The
specimen semen is collected for semen
analysis. The sperm count is checked along with two other important factors
like sperm cell motility and normal sperm morphology.
Medical and Genetic Tests - The potential sperm
donor must have clear results for HIV, Hepatitis B and C apart from several
other associated tests. The ABO-Rh factor blood typing is also carried out.A
genetic testing is also done to see whether the sperm would be a potential
carrier for cystic fibrosis.
The clinic or the sperm bank takes eight weeks to six months
before giving a clearance certificate for sperm donation. According to
regulations, a donor is eligible to sire for ten successful pregnancies. Sperm
donation is mostly motivated by money than any altruistic thoughts.
The Sperm Collection
The donor is taken to a private room which is fairly stocked
with pornographic materials. He is instructed to masturbate and collect his
semen in a sterile container. This sample is then mixed with cryo-preservative
solution. After dividing it in aliquots, it is sealed in vials and frozen with
liquefied nitrogen. This frozen semen sample is stored at a cool storage (-321 o
F). As per requirement, the semen is used during artificial insemination.