Infertility in women is due to many reasons. Though there are many causes of infertility in women, age factor is one of the most important one and matters a lot when considering her ability to conceive.
Infertility is a term used to describe a couple who has not been able to conceive a pregnancy and the period should be at least one year in which the couple has not made use of any kind of contraceptive. In some cases the term infertility is also used when a couple has been able to conceive at least once but after that they are unable.
Top 10 Causes of Infertility in Women (Female Infertility)
Causes behind infertility in women include both physical and emotional factors.
Endometriosis happens when tissues from the membrane that forms the lining of the uterus comes out of it. Since these tissues are out of the membrane they do not have way to shed the accumulated blood at the end of the menstrual cycle. This gets accumulated and causes inflammation and many associated problems.
Symptoms of Endometriosis
Here are some common symptoms of endometriosis.
- Pain and cramps before and after periods
- Pain during intercourse
Diagnosis and Treatment
Endometriosis is diagnosed with the help of a laparoscope which is used to look into the pelvic cavity. The cysts are treated with the help of medication and in severe cases surgery is done. However, women who are near to menopause or do not want children anymore can also get their uterus removed.
2. Pituitary Tumors
Pituitary tumors are normally considered harmless and benign. This sometimes leads to destruction of hormone secreting cells present in the pituitary glands. This results in cessation in menstrual cycle in women and reduction in sperm counts in men. These tumors can also cause visual defects.
By measuring hormone levels in blood and urine, by visual field tests and from MRI or CT scans of brain pituitary tumors can be diagnosed. The treatment is done by either removing the tumor or by radiation or hormonal replacement therapy.
3. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease occurs in the female reproductive organs and happens after miscarriage, abortion, childbirth or after sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea or Chlamydia infection.
- Abdominal pain and tenderness
- Vaginal discharge with unpleasant smell
Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis is done during pelvic examination. Samples of discharge are also analyzed in some cases. The treatment is done by giving antibiotics. If infertility is due to this problem, in vitro fertilization popularly known as IVF is used. In some cases surgery is also done.
4. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
In polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the egg is not released in uterus. Ovulation is either absent or inconsistent in this case. Many women have multiple cysts that are otherwise harmless.
Blood tests and ultrasounds are done and treatment includes medication and in some cases cysts are either removed by surgery or laser rays.
- Irregular ovulation
- Insulin resistance
- Excessive hair growth
5. Stress - Stress is also responsible for infertility in women. Right diet, proper rest and exercise can help conceive.
6. Obesity - Increased weight is a big problem today among both men and women and infertility has deep relations with obesity.
7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Either during or after the treatment of any sexually transmitted disease, women find it difficult to conceive.
8. Long Term Chronic Disease - Chronic diseases like diabetes can be one of the causes of infertility in women.
9. Poor Egg Quality - In this case eggs get damaged or cannot sustain pregnancy. Poor egg quality is also one of the likely causes of infertility in women.