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Preconception Topics..

You are here : home > Preconception > Ovulation, Menstruation and Fertilisation > What is Fertilisation?

What is Fertilisation?

What is Fertilisation?

The process of fertilisation is a complex one. It results in the formation of a new life with the combination of genes of both the parents. The process starts with the entry of male sperm into the vagina of the woman and then fusing with it. After a series of complex reactions, a zygote is formed which leads to the formation of fetus. Read on to know more about the complex but fascinating process of fertilisation.

The process of the sperm and egg joining together is known as
fertilisation. Here the genes of the man and woman combine together to initiate the formation of a new life. It also marks the successful end of a long and tedious journey of the sperm where just one amongst the million of sperms manages to reach the final destination of combining with the single egg. The egg also makes a journey of traveling from the ovary from where it is released and goes down to the fallopian tube and settles in there waiting to combine with the lucky sperm.

The Process of Fertilisation

When the sperm and the egg combine, a complex reaction takes place. There is a part in the sperm cell that contains chromosome. The moment the sperm cell fuses with the egg cell, the part containing chromosome, gives rise to a reaction whereby the other hordes of sperm cells that have also traversed the journey are prevented from entering the egg cell.

The coming together of the sperm and egg contributes to half of the genetic material configuration of the new life. Now, this fertilised egg cell is termed as zygote. Now, the other processes of new life also begin as the natural process of continuous cell division and multiplication takes place in the zygote. This paves the way for the growth of the multi-cellular organism that will be later termed as the fetus.

The Statistics of Fertilisation


Fertilisation occurs within a few hours after sexual intercourse. During the intercourse, over 300 million sperm get released into the vagina of the woman. It is just another intriguing part of nature’s law that only one amongst the millions can actually make it to the egg in order to fertilise it. The journey begins as it enters the vagina and travel to the uterus of the female. It then travels to the fallopian tube where the egg cell is resting against the uterine wall.


The egg cell is protected by a thick coating of sugars and protein which is called Zona Pellucida. The sperm has to penetrate this thick coating with its head. The head of the sperm contains certain enzymes that aid it in the process of breaking the Zona Pellucida.


The moment the head manages to enter the coating of the egg cell the end part or the tail of the sperm falls off. And now the perimeter of the egg cell broadens further. This is a reaction following fertilisation that actually prevents the other sperms from entering the egg cell. The sperm and the egg cells contain just half of the usual number of chromosomes. This condition is defined as haploid. The process of fertilisation is completed the moment the fusion of the genetic material of the two cells combine.



The Artificial Process of Fertilisation


Fertilisation is a natural process that happens after intercourse during the fertile period of the woman. But fertilisation can also be attained through artificial insemination if the situation so demands. This process is usually done to attain pregnancy amidst fertility issues.

If artificial insemination, the semen first needs to be washed off from the sperm. Then the sperm and the egg(s) are brought together and placed simultaneously in the fallopian tube of the woman. The fertilisation process then commences in a natural fashion from here on. This treatment technology that is used in the treatment of infertility is known as GIFT (Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer).

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Pooja.6 years ago
I would suggest you to consult Southend IVF and fertility clinic.The doctors are highly expereinced and their gametes are tested as per international standards. I had a bad expereince in other clinic but Southend made me realize the bliss of parenthood.
Drona.7 years ago
fertilization is a complex process but in this article, it has been explained in an easy way which even a layman can understand. this article has helped me to appreciate life even more, keep up the good work
Decider.7 years ago
you have mentioned about artificial fertilization but i want to know when does one go in for artificial insemination. where is this procedure done in India. could you please give me the name of a fertility specialist
Helpless.7 years ago
i have been trying to conceive since past few months but the results have been always negative. recently we had done some tests to determine if everything is normal and found out that my husband has low sperm count. what can i do to get pregnant, please help
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