Exploring Our Environment
The Life Sciences:
As we all know there is a great variety of living things around us. Man's life largely depends on them. Life on earth cannot exist without these plants & animals.
take as an example, a huge tree (say a 'Banyan Tree'). We observe a number
of tiny plants growing under its shade. Similarly there are different varieties
of animals-all unique in size and shape. But, what is common to all of
them? Although they look different from one another, they share a number
of features. All living things grow, change, move, need food, feel, respond
to changes around them, breathe and reproduce.
Living things grow and change: When seeds are sown , they grow into plants. Similarly, Buds change into flowers and Pups grow into dogs.
Living things move: Since plants make their own food, they do not have to move, but animals move in search of food using their legs, fins and wings- whatever the case may be.
Living things need food: Energy is important for all living things. Both animals and plants get energy from food.
Living things feel and respond to changes around them: Plants normally grow towards the direction of light and warmth. The leaves of the 'Pitcher plant' and 'Touch Me Not' can respond to something touching them. Animals have sense organs like eyes, ears, noses and the skin, which help them respond to changes.
things breathe and reproduce: Plants have small holes in their leaves,
(called stomata), through which they breathe. Animals breathe through an
organ called the nose while insects like cockroaches breathe through small
holes. Plants produce new offspring from their stems, leaves or seeds while
birds lay eggs and animals give birth to young ones.
Plants are said to be the most useful gifts of nature to man. The plant kingdom comprises of about 260,000 known species of woody plants, bushes, vines and trees. . Most plants are green because they contain a substance called chlorophyll. It is a substance that taps the energy (of sunlight) which plants need to make their own food. Plants are anchored in a growing medium such as soil.
Most plants have roots, stem, leaves, flowers and fruits, although there might be exceptions. The root of the plant remains under the ground while the other parts of the plant which remain above the ground are known as shoots.
Given below is a list of the common parts of a plant and their functions. The flower on the left illustrates the various parts of the plant.
Parts of a Plant:
of the Root:
of the Stem:
Functions of the Leaf
The leaf helps the plant to breathe. The water is carried through the veins to the leaf. The leaf blade has tiny holes on the underside called stomata. The leaf takes in air through these holes and gives out excess water.
The leaf gets its green color from a substance called chlorophyll. It makes food for the plant using sunlight, a gas present in air called carbon dioxide, chlorophyll and water.
While making food, the leaves take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen.Food is stored in some leaves.
Click here for an after - school exercise.
fruits and seeds:
So, How do plants grow?
produces many seeds but only few of them are able to produce more plants.
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