World of Animals
what would the world be if there were no animals in the jungles, no birds
chirping in the morning, no honey bees making honey, no fishes in the ponds,
no trees, flowers and fruits. Our surroundings would be empty.
play a very important role in our life. The surroundings in which they
live and grow is called Environment. The animal kingdom is very large and
has a variety of animals big and small which are found on land, in water
and in air. They have different shapes and size. We study about these animals
in the branch of Biology called Zoology. Since these animals are our natural
resources, we should try our best to protect them and see that
they are not killed. They need our love and care.
are very helpful to us
which carry loads, are horses, elephants, camels and bullocks.
Bullock and camel carts are very popular in some parts of the country.
like cows and buffalos give us milk. Camel milk is also used in some parts
of the country.
the meat of many animals like goat, chicken, pig, etc.
Animals like dogs, cats and parrots may also be kept as pets in our homes.
know that the silken and woolen garments, which you wear, are also obtained
from animals and not plants? Sheep and yaks give us wool while silk is obtained
from a small insect called silkworm.
give us honey.
is made from animal dung and dead animals.
is also nothing but cured and processed animal skin. Ancient people used
to cover their bodies using animal skins. Jackets, fur caps, coats and
gloves, purses, etc. are all made from animal skin.
are unique in their looks and characteristics. Observe some animals in
your locality. Do they have the same number of legs and a similar body structure? Compare
your body parts with theirs. Each type is different from the other. A lion
is very different from a cow and a dog does not have the same features
as a cat. All living things have some common characteristics.
do we classify animals? They are classified on basis of the different types
of characteristics they posses.
which don't have a backbone or skeleton, are called Invertebrates.
organisms, e.g. Amoeba)
Insects Adult insects typically have three pairs of legs, one pair of antennae and in most instances, two
pairs of wings.
which have a backbone or a bony skeleton, are called vertebrates.
Birds are members of a group of animals called vertebrates, which possess
a spinal column or backbone; birds develop from embryos in eggs outside
of the mother's body.
all diverse group of animals that live and breathe in water. All fishes are
vertebrates (animals with backbones) with gills for breathing. Most fishes
have fins for swimming, scales for protection and a streamlined body for
moving easily through the water.
are vertebrates that have a backbone with tough, dry skin covered with
horny scales. Some of the most widespread living reptiles are turtles,
lizards, snakes, crocodiles and alligators.
are animal with moist, hairless skin through which water can pass in and out, e.g. frog. They can live on land and in water.
have entirely different habits and behaviours. Humans are mammals. They give birth to their young directly, and don't lay eggs. According to the suitability of their
environment, they have different organs for movement, feeding and breathing.
Organs of Animals
Organs of Movement
can move in different ways from one place to another in search of food
and shelter and have different types of body organs.
animals have four limbs.
two limbs in front are called fore limbs.
limbs--the two at the back are known as hind limbs.
all four limbs to walk, run or jump while some use only hind limbs,
lizards, crocodile move by crawling, but they do have limbs. Snakes do not
have fins, webbed feet and paddle-like limbs.
swim with the help of fins.
toes-- frogs swim with webbed toes, when on land they use hind legs to
Paddle-like limbs--tortoise use four paddle-like limbs to push water.
use two fore limbs as flippers to push water forwards.
(Animals of the air)
have wings, which help in flying. The fore limbs (front) of birds are converted
into wings, which have feathers.
birds--some birds are unable to fly because their wings are to weak for
flying like for e.g. kiwi, ostrich, emu and rhea.
insects have one or two pairs of wings for flying e.g. butterfly. The wings
are different from those of birds, as they have no feathers. They are made
of tiny colored scales. Some have six legs for movement, e.g. cockroaches
and ants. Grasshoppers use hind legs.
is movement important for animals?
resting places like nests etc.
themselves from enemies.
eat different types of food and have different types of feeding organs.
They are classified on basis of the types of food they eat.
eat and get their food in different ways.
Animals, which eat plants, are called herbivorous animals for e.g. cows,
giraffes, goat etc. They have sharp front teeth for biting and strong broad
teeth for chewing.
Animals who eat the flesh of other animals like lions, tiger, cat, vultures
etc. They posses sharp pointed and curved teeth for tearing flesh.
They eat plants as well as flesh of other animals. E.g. crow kites and
eagles. They have strong grinding teeth for chewing flesh and bones.
suck blood from the body of human beings.
Snakes swallow their food whole.
have a long trunk. They lift their food with this trunk and put in into their mouths.
have beaks and claws.
rats, squirrel, etc. have sharp front teeth to gnaw seeds and fruits.
that animals remain healthy, grow and get energy to survive and protect
themselves from enemies.
is breathing important?
Fishes, tadpoles (baby frog), oysters, prawns and crabs breathe through
An adult frog breathes through its lungs on land. Birds, reptiles and mammals
also breathe through lungs.
Insects have tiny air holes on their bodies called spiracles to breathe.
Small microscopic animals breathe through their body surface like amoeba.
get oxygen while breathing, which burns the food within their bodies and
they get energy to do work.
an activity for you!
Maintain a notebook.
your mother to take you to a Zoo, so you can observe the various types of animals.
at least 5-6 animals there and make a list grouping them - which of them
can run, fly, jump, swim, crawl and walk.
their mouths and try to observe their teeth and see what type of food they
take.[Remember, don't go too close to the animals!!]
the animals into plant eaters (herbivores)and flesh eaters(carnivores).
animals near your house and see what type of houses they make for e.g.
burrows, holes or nests.
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